Trim the tips off asparagus spears and set aside for another use. Using a vegetable peeler, thinly shave the asparagus lengthwise into wide ribbons. Set the asparagus aside.
Bring a large pot of water to a boil over high heat. Add salt and fettuccine, return water to a boil and cook until al dente, about 3 minutes.
Meanwhile, heat 1/2 cup of water in a large saucepan or Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add butter; when melted, add lemon juice and garlic.
Drain fettuccine and add it to the pan with butter-lemon mixture; add asparagus ribbons, Parmesan cheese, black pepper and lemon zest. Cook, stirring, 1 minute. Add the chives and stir again. Divide fettuccine and asparagus among 6 dinner plates or wide, shallow bowls and serve.